Stéphane Richard is born in 1961. He has been Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Orange since March 1, 2011. He joined the Group in September 2009 and was appointed Deputy Chief Executive Officer with responsibility for French Operations on October 5, 2009. He became a corporate officer as Chief Executive Officer Delegate on January 1, 2010, and was appointed as Chief Executive Officer of Orange on March 1, 2010. Between 1992 and 2003, Stéphane Richard was deputy to the CFO of Compagnie Générale des Eaux, Chief Executive Officer of Compagnie Immobilière Phénix, and Chairman of CGIS (Compagnie Générale d’Immobilier et de Services), now Nexity. From 2003 to 2007, he was Deputy Chief Executive Officer of Veolia Environnement and CEO of Veolia Transport, and was a director of France Telecom-Orange during this period. Between 2007 and 2009, Stéphane Richard was Chief of Staff to the French Minister for the Economy, Industry, and Employment. He is a graduate of École des Hautes Études Commerciales and École Nationale d’Administration. Stéphane Richard is a French national.